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Anas crecca

(1) Male. Empordà Wetlands Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2010-16-01
(2) Male. Empordà Wetlands Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-03-01
(2) Female. Empordà Wetlands Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-03-01

Bibliography

  • Van Duivendijk N Advanced Bird ID Guide: The Western Palearctic 1st Ed. New Holland Publishes 2010
  • Mullarney K, Svensson L, Zetterström D, Grant PJ Bird Guide. The most complete field guide to the birds of Britain and Europe Collins 1st Ed. 1999
  • Gallinago gallinago

    (1) Empordà Wetlands Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-03-01
    (1) Empordà Wetlands Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-03-01
    (1) Empordà Wetlands Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-03-01

    ID Tips
    Like all the snipes, it is cryptically colored with dark-brown upperparts, white belly. Striped head and upperparts. Dark barring in flanks. Very long straight bill and long tail. Pale crown stripe (pictures 1,3) useful to tell it apart from Lymnocryptes minimus.

    Bibliography

  • Van Duivendijk N Advanced Bird ID Guide: The Western Palearctic 1st Ed. New Holland Publishes 2010
  • Message S, Taylor D Waders of Europe, Asia and North America 1st Ed. Helm Field Guides 2005
  • Mullarney K, Svensson L, Zetterström D, Grant PJ Bird Guide. The most complete field guide to the birds of Britain and Europe Collins 1st Ed. 1999
  • Emberiza schoeniclus

    (1) 1st winter male. Empordà Wetlands Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-03-01
    (2) 1st winter male, same as (1). Empordà Wetlands Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-03-01
    (3) 1st winter male, same as (1). Empordà Wetlands Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-03-01
    (4) 1st winter male, same as (1). Empordà Wetlands Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-03-01
    (5) Male moulting to summer plumage. Empordà Wetlands Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-03-01
    (6) Female in summer plumage. Empordà Wetlands Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-03-01
    ID Tips
    First winter males (pictures 1-4) have prominent supercillium and reddish head pattern. They are told apart from females because males have grey rump (picture 4). Males moulting to summer plumage (picture 5) acquire a deep black head pattern and the white on the neck reaches the rear head creating a wide white collar. Females in summer plumage (picture 6) are told apart from males because their black is not as deep as in males. Furthermore, the white pattern is restricted to the moustache with distinct black lateral throat stripes.
    Bibliography
  • Van Duivendijk N Advanced Bird ID Guide: The Western Palearctic 1st Ed. New Holland Publishes 2010
  • Mullarney K, Svensson L, Zetterström D, Grant PJ Bird Guide. The most complete field guide to the birds of Britain and Europe Collins 1st Ed. 1999
  • Sylvia atricapilla

    (1) Adult male. Empordà Wetlands Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-03-01

    ID Tips
    The adult male (picture 1) is unmistakable. It keeps the same plumage all year round.


    Bibliography
  • Van Duivendijk N Advanced Bird ID Guide: The Western Palearctic 1st Ed. New Holland Publishes 2010
  • Mullarney K, Svensson L, Zetterström D, Grant PJ Bird Guide. The most complete field guide to the birds of Britain and Europe Collins 1st Ed. 1999
  • Ichthyaetus melanocephalus

    (1) Adult moulting to summer plumage. Roses Bay, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-02-25
    (2) Adult in winter plumage. Roses Bay, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-02-25
    (3) Adult with post-breeding plumage. Punta de Garbí, Sant Feliu de Guíxols, Catalonia, Spain. 2010-08-11
    ID Tips
    Possible confusion with Chroicocephalus ridibundus. However, note the white primary feathers on all plumages, the bright red bill with a black stripe and the overall whitish upperparts. In summer plumage (picture 1) the black hood reaches the base of the neck.

    Bibliography
  • Van Duivendijk N Advanced Bird ID Guide: The Western Palearctic 1st Ed. New Holland Publishes 2010
  • Olsen KM, Larsson HD Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America Helm Identification Guides 1st Ed. 2004
  • Mullarney K, Svensson L, Zetterström D, Grant PJ Bird Guide. The most complete field guide to the birds of Britain and Europe Collins 1st Ed. 1999
  • Chroicocephalus ridibundus

    (1) Adult, summer plumage. Farne Islands, UK. 2008-06-21
    (2) Adult in summer plumage. Roses Bay, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-02-25
    (3) Adult in winter. Roses Bay, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-02-25
    (3) 1st winter. Note the juvenile wings and tail retained in 1st winter individuals. Roses Bay, Catalonia, Spain. 2012-02-25
    ID tips
    It can be confused with Ichthyaetus ridibundus. Note the black primary feathers tips on adults in both winter and summer plumages. In summer plumage (pictures 1, 2), the black hood does not arrive at the base of the neck. The bill is dark red instead of blood red. The winter plumage (picture 3) is best identified because of its black primary tips and overall greyer upperparts. Also, its bill is dull red.
    Bibliography
  • Van Duivendijk N Advanced Bird ID Guide: The Western Palearctic 1st Ed. New Holland Publishes 2010
  • Olsen KM, Larsson HD Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America Helm Identification Guides 1st Ed. 2004
  • Mullarney K, Svensson L, Zetterström D, Grant PJ Bird Guide. The most complete field guide to the birds of Britain and Europe Collins 1st Ed. 1999
  • Anthus pratensis

    Winter plumage. Empordà Marshes Natural Park, Catalonia, Spain. 2011-12-06

    ID Tips

    In winter this bird can be confused with A. spinoletta as they share the same habitat. Note the lack of the supercilium stripe in A. pratensis. Also, the breast streaking is much more important in A. pratensis.

    Bibliography
  • Van Duivendijk N Advanced Bird ID Guide: The Western Palearctic 1st Ed. New Holland Publishes 2010
  • Mullarney K, Svensson L, Zetterström D, Grant PJ Bird Guide. The most complete field guide to the birds of Britain and Europe Collins 1st Ed. 1999
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